Type 2 diabetes: Experimental remedy could remove dependence on insulin

Type 2 diabetes: Experimental remedy could remove dependence on insulin
Scientists have proposed a new therapy for type 2 diabetes. If tested effectively, the therapy may help some people discontinue insulin treatment.

Scientists have proposed a fresh therapy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, with a proof-of-concept study showing positive initial results. If effective, the remedy may imply that some persons can stop taking insulin treatment.

The authors of the research presented their findings at UEG Week Virtual 2020, a conference organized by United European Gastroenterology, a specialist nonprofit organization for experts in digestive health.

Type 2 diabetes
Based on the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, a person may have type 2 diabetes when their blood sugar is too much.

People gain blood sugar, or blood sugar, mainly from the food they eat. Insulin helps cells access this glucose to use as energy. However, for a person with type 2 diabetes, either their body does not make enough insulin or their cells usually do not respond to insulin correctly.

This then signifies that the glucose within their blood increases, which may lead to complications of diabetes, such as for example heart and kidney disease, visual impairment, and lack of sensation in the limbs. The higher the blood glucose as time passes, the higher the risk of these complications.

In line with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 1 in 10 adults in the USA have diabetes, and 90-95% of these people have type 2 diabetes.

Doctors typically recommend changes in lifestyle, such as for example being more physically active and eating a more healthy diet, to treat type 2 diabetes, as well as medications to control a person’s blood pressure and blood sugar levels.

Insulin treatment may be necessary if a person is struggling to maintain their blood sugar at normal levels. This treatment may take the form of injections, pens, pumps, or inhalers. It encourages the cells in a person’s body to soak up more blood sugar.

However, people’s perception of the side effects of insulin treatment can be quite pronounced. As a result, doctors may be less likely to prescribe insulin, and, when they do, people might not exactly take it regularly.

Consequently, therapies that may avoid these perceived unwanted effects could be valuable in making certain people match their prescribed treatment and prevent risking serious medical issues.

Proof of concept
In this context, the researchers behind today's study used a novel technique that scientists first reported using in humans in 2016. Predicated on those preliminary results, it seemed promising.

The technique is named duodenal mucosal resurfacing (DMR). The duodenum may be the first part of a person’s small intestine. DMR involves lifting the mucosal layer of the duodenal to permit the ablation of the revealed area using warm water - an activity that removes the cells in the targeted area.

The researchers who developed the DMR technique were trying to reproduce the positive impact that bariatric surgery (gastric bypass) has on blood sugar levels with a less invasive technique.

Studies of how bariatric surgery improves blood sugar control have concluded that there is a direct effect from the duodenum in addition to the weight loss that results from bariatric surgery.

DMR can take place in an outpatient setting and is minimally invasive. It involves an endoscope catheter to get usage of the duodenal.

The direct aftereffect of the tiny intestine on glucose control seems to come from the occurrence of intraepithelial lymphocyte T cells. These are nestled between your gut cells mixed up in the absorption of nutrients from food.

Mice without these cells are protected from obesity and cardiovascular disease, even when eating a high-fat diet.

These intraepithelial lymphocytes decrease the amount of a gut hormone called GLP-1. Therefore, in the current study, the researchers added regular doses of a GLP-1 agonist called liraglutide on day 14.

They did so to counteract the reduced amount of this essential lean, antidiabetic hormone. The analysis participants also received lifestyle counseling to help reduce their blood sugar.

The analysis involved 16 participants with type 2 diabetes acquiring insulin treatment. Of the participants who received the DMR remedy with liraglutide, 12 (75%) were able to stop using insulin and keep maintaining their blood sugar control after six months. 
Source: www.medicalnewstoday.com
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